Sex-Specific Considerations and Evaluation of Trochlear Dysplasia in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Instability


  • John P. Fulkerson, MD Yale University Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New Haven, CT



female athlete, patellar instability, patellar dislocation


Patella dislocation is a serious problem that disrupts athletic careers and influences quality of life, particularly when it is recurrent.  The incidence of patellar dislocation has been shown to be most common in female adolescents. The causes of patellar dislocation are multifactorial, and the reasons for such sex-related differences are not well understood. A better understanding of risk factors such as trochlear dysplasia can help improve our treatment for this condition. While true for all athletes, attention to core stability, particularly with regard to lower limb mechanics, may be particularly important in female athletes with regard to reducing patella dislocation risk as well as ligament injury prevention, and should be explored further.


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Kristin E. Yu, Daniel R. Cooperman, Christopher A. Schneble, William McLaughlin, Brian Beitler, Ryan Kaliney, Annie Wang, John P. Fulkerson. “Three-dimensional printing deepens the understanding of trochlea curvatures in recurrent patella dislocation patients. Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 2022.,

Spang R, Jahandar A, Meyers K, Nguyen J, Maher S, and Strickland S. Dysplastic patellofemoral joints lead to a shift in contact forces: a 3D-printed cadaveric model. Am J Sports Med 49(12): 3344-3349, 2021.

Beitler B, Yu K, Wang A, Frumberg D, Tommasini S, Wiznia D, Cooperman D, Lattanza L, Fulkerson J. Three dimensional printing of the patellofemroal joints of patella instability patients. Arthroscopy Techniques February 2023







How to Cite

Sex-Specific Considerations and Evaluation of Trochlear Dysplasia in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Instability. (2023). Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine, 3(1), 25-26.

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