Editorial Commentary: Sex-Specific Differences in Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries: A Retrospective Analysis


  • Steven DeFroda, MD, MEng University of Missouri
  • Stephanie Choo, MD University of Missouri




UCL, throwing, female, sports medicine


Orthopedic injuries in female athletes continue to rise at a dramatic rate at every level of competition. This has sparked increased research interests into the pathoanatomy, epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes related to sex-specific differences involving ligament injuries, including ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries. However, most published research studies have been limited when evaluating for any sex-specific differences beyond anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries.  Most UCL-related research, especially as it pertains to high level athletes, has occurred in the realm of professional baseball, a male-dominated sport.  While there are small reports of UCL injuries in females, these injuries are more common in women who participate in track and field (javelin), and gymnastics.  It is imperative for our orthopedic surgery community to continue to advance our understanding of sex-related differences in elbow UCL injuries to improve our injury understanding and ultimately help improve treatment and rehabilitation protocols for both male and female athletes with regards to different ligament injuries.


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How to Cite

Editorial Commentary: Sex-Specific Differences in Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries: A Retrospective Analysis. (2023). Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine, 3(1), 10-13. https://doi.org/10.53646/jwsm.v3i1.38

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