Training and Injury Considerations in Female-Identifying Cyclists


  • Dana Kotler, MD Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School
  • Sarah Rice, DPT, PhD Athletico Physical Therapy
  • Nicole Katz, MD 1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 2) Spaulding Rehabilitation Network, Charlestown, MA
  • Nancy Gomes, MBA, MS, CISSN 1) Nutrify Performance Nutrition for Women, Franklin MA, 2) Lasell University, Auburndale, MA
  • Wendy Holliday, PT, PhD WH Bike Fit, Cornelius, NC
  • Karen Zunti, PT Spaulding Rehabilitation Network, Charlestown, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
  • John Moore, BA Empirical Cycling, Durham, NC



cycling, bicycle, bicycle fit, overuse injury, nutrition, hormones, women's sports, female-identifying


Alongside the growth of cycling has been a corresponding increase in the proportion of female-identifying cyclists on the roads and trails. Assumptions about anatomic differences have historically inspired specific equipment design for women cyclists, while most of the cycling research has included only male-identifying participants. More recently, the industry has shifted towards a more gender-inclusive design, in line with the heterogeneity seen in cyclists of any gender identity.  There has been research into biomechanical and metabolic differences of female athletes, which can impact female cyclists’ performance and injury risk.  However, women cyclists are not defined solely by their anatomy or physiology. Their experiences, needs, access, and goals must be considered in developing strategies for prevention and rehabilitation of cycling-related injury, as well as training and performance.


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Training and Injury Considerations in Female-Identifying Cyclists. (2023). Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine, 3(2), 11-24.

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