Returning to Sport: A Level-Based Guide for Women’s Artistic Developmental Program Gymnasts

Authors

  • Tatiana Patsimas, MD Children's Healthcare of Atlanta
  • David Tilley, DPT Champion Physical Therapy and Performance
  • Darby Glackin, ATC Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
  • Emily Sweeney, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53646/n2fpwv97

Keywords:

gymnastics, female athlete, Return to Sport, Women in sport

Abstract

 

Female artistic gymnasts, defined as gymnasts who compete in the vault, uneven parallel bars, balance beam, and floor events, may be affected by a wide variety of acute and overuse injuries throughout their athletic careers. Returning these athletes to their sport safely after an injury requires detailed knowledge of the various events in which they compete as well as a familiarity with what is expected of these gymnasts at the various levels of training and competition. Despite the complexity described above, there are few published resources to help providers guide the female artistic gymnast back to sport after injury. Therefore, we developed two purposes for this paper: (1) to review important concepts regarding return to play (RTP) in women’s artistic gymnastics and (2) to add to the existing literature on RTP in women’s gymnastics by providing RTP protocols that consider a gymnast’s training level as well as injured body area.

References

Weiker GG. Introduction and history of gymnastics. Clin Sports Med. 1985;4(1):3-5.

Magazine S, Solly M. A History of Gymnastics, From Ancient Greece to Tokyo 2020. Smithsonian Magazine. Accessed January 28, 2023. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/history-gymnastics-ancient-greece-tokyo-2020-180978270/

Chandran A, Roby PR, Boltz AJ, Robison HJ, Morris SN, Collins CL. Epidemiology of Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association Women’s Gymnastics: 2014–2015 Through 2018–2019. Journal of Athletic Training. 2021;56(7):688. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-635-20

Desai N, Vance DD, Rosenwasser MP, Ahmad CS. Artistic Gymnastics Injuries; Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019;27(13):459-467. doi:10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00147

U.S. Americans who did gymnastics 2021. Statista. Accessed January 28, 2023. https://www.statista.com/statistics/191908/participants-in-gymnastics-in-the-us-since-2006/

Definition B. SFIA Releases In-Depth Individual Team Sport Reports. Sports & Fitness Industry Association. Accessed January 29, 2023. https://sfia.org/resources/sfia_releases_in-depth_individual_team_sport_reports/

USA Gymnastics | About USA Gymnastics. Accessed January 29, 2023. https://usagym.org/pages/aboutus/pages/about_usag.html

Overlin AJF, Chima B, Erickson S. Update on artistic gymnastics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2011;10(5):304-309. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e31822dc3b2

Kay MC, Register-Mihalik JK, Gray AD, Djoko A, Dompier TP, Kerr ZY. The Epidemiology of Severe Injuries Sustained by National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes, 2009–2010 Through 2014–2015. J Athl Train. 2017;52(2):117-128. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-52.1.01

Kerr ZY, Marshall SW, Dompier TP, Corlette J, Klossner DA, Gilchrist J. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(48):1330-1336. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6448a2

O’Kane JW, Levy MR, Pietila KE, Caine DJ, Schiff MA. Survey of injuries in Seattle area levels 4 to 10 female club gymnasts. Clin J Sport Med. 2011;21(6):486-492. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31822e89a8

Lindner KJ, Caine DJ. Injury patterns of female competitive club gymnasts. Can J Sport Sci. 1990;15(4):254-261.

Kirialanis P, Malliou P, Beneka A, Gourgoulis V, Giofstidou A, Godolias G. Injuries in artistic gymnastic elite adolescent male and female athletes. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2002;16(4):145-151. doi:10.3233/bmr-2002-16405

Changstrom BG, Brou L, Khodaee M, Braund C, Comstock RD. Epidemiology of stress fracture injuries among US high school athletes, 2005-2006 through 2012-2013. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(1):26-33. doi:10.1177/0363546514562739

Sweeney EA, Howell DR, James DA, Potter MN, Provance AJ. Returning to Sport After Gymnastics Injuries. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2018;17(11):376-390. doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000533

Saluan P, Styron J, Ackley JF, Prinzbach A, Billow D. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts: A 21-Year Experience at a Single Training Facility. Orthop J Sports Med. 2015;3(4):2325967115577596. doi:10.1177/2325967115577596

Chandran A, Roby PR, Boltz AJ, Robison HJ, Morris SN, Collins CL. Epidemiology of Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association Women’s Gymnastics: 2014–2015 Through 2018–2019. Journal of Athletic Training. 2021;56(7):688-694. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-635-20

Fournier M. Principles of rehabilitation and return to sports following injury. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2015;32(2):261-268. doi:10.1016/j.cpm.2014.11.009

Ranieri M, Potter M, Mascaro M, Grant-Ford M. Return to Play in Gymnastics. In: Sweeney E, ed. Gymnastics Medicine: Evaluation, Management and Rehabilitation. Springer International Publishing; 2020:291-343. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-26288-4_12

Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Webster KE. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(17):1120-1126. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091203

Nwachukwu BU, Adjei J, Rauck RC, et al. How Much Do Psychological Factors Affect Lack of Return to Play After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019;7(5):2325967119845313. doi:10.1177/2325967119845313

Docking SI, Cook J. How do tendons adapt? Going beyond tissue responses to understand positive adaptation and pathology development: A narrative review. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2019;19(3):300-310.

Koskinen SOA, Heinemeier KM, Olesen JL, Langberg H, Kjaer M. Physical exercise can influence local levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tendon-related connective tissue. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96(3):861-864. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00489.2003

Sands WA. Injury Prevention in Women’s Gymnastics. Sports Med. 2000;30(5):359-373. doi:10.2165/00007256-200030050-00004

Reinold MM, Wilk KE, Reed J, Crenshaw K, Andrews JR. Interval sport programs: guidelines for baseball, tennis, and golf. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002;32(6):293-298. doi:10.2519/jospt.2002.32.6.293

Herget L. Return to Sport Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Women’s Soccer. Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine. 2022;2(2):70-82. doi:10.53646/jwsm.v2i2.27

Cotter A. Return to Sport Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Women’s Field Hockey. Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine. 2022;2(2):57-69. doi:10.53646/jwsm.v2i2.24

Tarantino K. Return to Sport Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Women’s Indoor Volleyball. Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine. 2022;2(2):42-56. doi:10.53646/jwsm.v2i2.23

Doolan-Roy ED, Reagan K, Modisette M, Mattes LL. Return to Sport Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction In the Professional Female Ballet Dancer. Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine. 2022;2(2):83-94. doi:10.53646/jwsm.v2i2.26

May KH, Marshall DL, Burns TG, Popoli DM, Polikandriotis JA. PEDIATRIC SPORTS SPECIFIC RETURN TO PLAY GUIDELINES FOLLOWING CONCUSSION. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2014;9(2):242-255.

Prassas S, Kwon YH, Sands WA. Biomechanical research in artistic gymnastics: a review. Sports Biomech. 2006;5(2):261-291. doi:10.1080/14763140608522878

Wolf MR, Avery D, Wolf JM. Upper Extremity Injuries in Gymnasts. Hand Clin. 2017;33(1):187-197. doi:10.1016/j.hcl.2016.08.010

Albright JA, Meghani O, Lemme NJ, Owens BD, Tabaddor R. Characterization of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Gymnastics Participants From 2013 to 2020. Sports Health. Published online June 7, 2022:19417381221099004. doi:10.1177/19417381221099005

Mauck B, Kelly D, Sheffer B, Rambo A, Calandruccio JH. Gymnast’s Wrist (Distal Radial Physeal Stress Syndrome). Orthop Clin North Am. 2020;51(4):493-497. doi:10.1016/j.ocl.2020.06.012

Benjamin HJ, Engel SC, Chudzik D. Wrist Pain in Gymnasts: A Review of Common Overuse Wrist Pathology in the Gymnastics Athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2017;16(5):322-329. doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000398

Trevithick B, Mellifont R, Sayers M. Wrist pain in gymnasts: Efficacy of a wrist brace to decrease wrist pain while performing gymnastics. J Hand Ther. 2020;33(3):354-360. doi:10.1016/j.jht.2019.03.002

McLaren K, Byrd E, Herzog M, Polikandriotis JA, Willimon SC. Impact Shoulder Angles Correlate with Impact Wirst Angles in Standing Back Handsprings in Preadolescent and Adolescent Female Gymnasts. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(3):341-346.

Farana R, Jandacka D, Uchytil J, Zahradnik D, Irwin G. The influence of hand positions on biomechanical injury risk factors at the wrist joint during the round-off skills in female gymnastics. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(2):124-129. doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1158414

Farana R, Exell T, Strutzenberger G, Irwin G. Technique selection in young female gymnasts: Elbow and wrist joint loading during the cartwheel and round-off. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(3):423-430. doi:10.1080/17461391.2018.1424941

Farana R, Jandacka D, Uchytil J, Zahradnik D, Irwin G. Technique Selection “the Coaches Challenge” Influencing Injury Risk During the First Contact Hand of the Round off Skill in Female Gymnastics. J Hum Kinet. 2017;56:51-59. doi:10.1515/hukin-2017-0022

Dizdarevic I, Low S, Currie DW, Comstock RD, Hammoud S, Atanda A. Epidemiology of Elbow Dislocations in High School Athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(1):202-208. doi:10.1177/0363546515610527

Bonazza NA, Saltzman EB, Wittstein JR, Richard MJ, Kramer W, Riboh JC. Overuse Elbow Injuries in Youth Gymnasts. Am J Sports Med. 2022;50(2):576-585. doi:10.1177/03635465211000776

Nicolette GW, Gravlee JR. Ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow in female division I collegiate gymnasts: a report of five cases. Open Access J Sports Med. 2018;9:183-189. doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S159624

Wilson PL, Wyatt CW, Searls WC, et al. Elbow Overuse Injuries in Pediatric Female Gymnastic Athletes: Comparative Findings and Outcomes in Radial Head Stress Fractures and Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021;103(18):1675-1684. doi:10.2106/JBJS.20.01863

Busch MT. Something Old and Something New: Young Gymnastic Athletes with Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans Compared with Isolated Radial Head Stress Fractures: Commentary on the article by Philip L. Wilson, MD, et al: “Elbow Overuse Injuries in Pediatric Female Gymnastic Athletes. Comparative Findings and Outcomes in Radial Head Stress Fractures and Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans.” J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2021;103(18):e79. doi:10.2106/JBJS.21.00620

Hart E, Meehan WP, Bae DS, d’Hemecourt P, Stracciolini A. The Young Injured Gymnast: A Literature Review and Discussion. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2018;17(11):366-375. doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000536

McBride AP, Brais G, Wood T, Ek ET, Hoy G. Stress reactions and fractures around the elbow in athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2021;24(5):425-429. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2020.10.010

Santelli J, McCambridge TM, Valasek AE, Standiford K. Proximal Radial Head Fractures in Young Gymnasts: A Case Series of Newly Described Overuse Injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 2019;29(1):e1-e3. doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000498

Chilvers M, Donahue M, Nassar L, Manoli A. Foot and ankle injuries in elite female gymnasts. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28(2):214-218. doi:10.3113/FAI.2007.0214

Caldemeyer LE, Brown SM, Mulcahey MK. Neuromuscular training for the prevention of ankle sprains in female athletes: a systematic review. Phys Sportsmed. 2020;48(4):363-369. doi:10.1080/00913847.2020.1732246

Mitchell J, Magnussen RA, Collins CL, et al. Epidemiology of Patellofemoral Instability Injuries Among High School Athletes in the United States. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(7):1676-1682. doi:10.1177/0363546515577786

Trombetta A, Barbi E, Murru FM, Cozzi G. Adolescent Female with Severe Thigh Pain after Doing Splits. J Pediatr. 2020;225:274. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.087

Vadhera AS, Knapik DM, Gursoy S, et al. Avulsion fractures of the ischial tuberosity in the pediatric athlete: a systematic review and return to sport analysis. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2022;31(5):508-516. doi:10.1097/BPB.0000000000000968

Bradshaw EJ, Hume PA. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women’s artistic gymnastics. Sports Biomech. 2012;11(3):324-341. doi:10.1080/14763141.2011.650186

Kruse D, Lemmen B. Spine injuries in the sport of gymnastics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2009;8(1):20-28. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181967ca6

Wu HH, Brown K, Flores M, Cazzulino A, Swarup I. Diagnosis and Management of Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis in Children. JBJS Rev. 2022;10(3). doi:10.2106/JBJS.RVW.21.00176

USA Gymnastics - 2021-2029 Compulsory Book (full sized). Accessed November 30, 2023. https://usagym.sportgraphics.biz/p-379-2021-2029-compulsory-book-full-sized.aspx

Downloads

Published

2024-04-06

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Returning to Sport: A Level-Based Guide for Women’s Artistic Developmental Program Gymnasts. (2024). Journal of Women’s Sports Medicine, 4(1), 14-29. https://doi.org/10.53646/n2fpwv97

Similar Articles

1-10 of 36

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 4 > >>